Allama Muhammad Iqbal

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Basics Info about Allama Iqbal

Birth Date 9th November 1877
PlaceSialkot province (Punjab)
DeathDied in LAHORE, 21st April 1938
Cause of DeathIllness and weakness
Early educationSialkot from Masjid
Higher educationGovernment College Lahore, a doctorate from the Ludwig-Maximillian University in Munich in 1907, the bar at law in 1908 from lincoln’s Inn.
InterestPersian language poetry
Urdu BooksIlm ul Iqtisad (1903)
English BooksThe Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908).
The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930)
Poetry Persian BooksAsrar-i-Khudi Rumuz-i-Bekhudi (1917)
Payam-i-Mashriq (1923)
Zabur-i-Ajam (1927)
Javid Nama (1932)
Pas Cheh Bayed Kard ai Aqwam-e-Sharq (1936)
Armughan-e-Hijaz (1938) in Persian and Urdu
Poetry Urdu BooksBang-i-Dara (1924)
Bal-i-Jibril (1935)
Zarb-i Kalim (1936)

Sir ALLAMA MUHAMMAD IQBAL was born in Sialkot on 9th November 1877. Allama Iqbal was a barrister, philosopher, thinker, and poet. Allama Iqbal was known to be the “Father of Spirit of Pakistan” of the contributions of the nation. Allama Iqbal had love to write poetry, he wrote poetry in “Urdu & Persian” and became Pakistan’s national poet. Allama Iqbal was appreciated by Muslims of Indian, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and by international literature as well as the western scholars. Allama Iqbal also is known to be the best poet and also claimed as the “modern times philosophical thinker”. The first poetry was “Secrets of self”, was published in 1915 in Persian. Some books were published later like “secrets of selflessness, the message from the East and Persian Psalms”.  He also wrote poetry in Urdu language. Allama Iqbal was Pakistan’s National Poet[1].

Allama Iqbal watched the dream of Pakistan. He said to the Quaid-e-Azam to made Pakistan for the Muslims, where they can do worship of ALLAH and follow the Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W). he wants that, Muslims should have their separate place where they can do their Islamic teachings easily[1].

Allama Iqbal and his Father Sheikh Noor Muhammad

Personal Life:

Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877. He was from an ethnic Kashmiri family lived Sialkot. That time, he was in British India and now he is in Pakistan. His family members were Pandit and were moved to Islam in the 15th of a decade. The background village “Kulgam”, after accepting Islam to go back to their former village. His family migrated to Punjab when Sikh Emperor was subordinate to Kashmir. His father was the 8th cousin of Sir “Bahadar Sapru”. His father wanted that his son would become a lawyer[1].

Allama Iqbal often mentions and memorated his Kashmiri genealogy in his books. His father was a tailor, an illiterate man, but he was a religious man. His mother from the Punjabi Family and name was “Imam Bibi”, lived in Sambrial. She was humble with everyone and was helping women.  She helped the poor and the needy persons, and solve their problems, but died in Sialkot dated November 9, 1914. Allama’s mother death left sorrow and eulogy. She always waited for them, when he went out for study and job. He loves her mother a lot[1].


Allama Iqbal was about four (4) years old, he joined Masjid, where he learned about the Qur’an. His teacher Syed Mir Hassan taught him the Arabic language. He became the principle of Madrasa and a Professor in Sialkot of Arabic in “Mission College”. He completed Matriculation in 1893, got faculty of diploma in 1893. He completed intermediate in 1895 from Government College University. At the same institution, in 1897 he completed “Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy, English literature and Arabic”. He performed well in Arabic and got the medal of “Khan Bahadurddin F.S. Jalaluddin”. Allama Iqbal completed “MASTER OF ARTS” from the Government College University. He got first prize in the University of Punjab[1].


Allam Iqbal Marriages three times, wives named “Karim Bibi, Mukhtar Begum, and Sardar Begum”[1].

The first marriage with Karim Bibi in 1895 when he was about 18 years old, She was the daughter of the physician. Her father’s name was “Khan Bahadur Ata Muhammad Khan[1]”.

The second marriage with Mukhtar Begum in 1914, after the death of Allama’s mother died. They had a son but mother and son were died after giving birth to a child soon[1].

The third marriage was held with Sardar Begum, from which they become the parents of a son named Javed Iqbal. Javed Iqbal became judge and her daughter Muneera Bano[1].

Studies from the Europe:

Allama Iqbal was affected by the tutoring of “Sir Thomas Arnold”. He was the philosopher at the “Government College Lahore”, followed by the West in his Higher Education. He went to England to learn philosophy in 1905. While studying in England, he was already known with Friedrich Nietzsche and Henri Berson. He wanted to teach “Masnavi” to a friend “Swami Rama Tirtha”. Mutually, he teaches “Sanskrit” to Allama. He got a “Bachelor of Arts in 1906” from “Cambridge University” and got a scholarship. Lincoln’s Inn called to the bar in the same year. Allama Iqbal went to Germany to get the proportion of “Doctor of Philosophy” in 1907 from the “Ludwig Maximillian University of Munich, 1908”[1].

Allama Iqbal was completed thesis in the “Persian language”, which was titled “Development of Metaphysics in Persia” by instructions of “Friedrich Hommel”. Allama Iqbal had an interest in Islamic Studies and “Sufi beliefs”. He expressed the ALLAH and his Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W) in his poetry[1].

Academic Career:

Allama Iqbal completed a degree “Master of arts” in 1988 and started a career as an Arabic reader at “Oriental college”. He joined Govt. college Lahore as a junior professor of Philosophy. He was studied at that college when he was a student. He worked there and went to England in 1905. He came back from England in 1908 and joined the same College and become a professor of philosophy and English literature. He became a member of the “Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam”[1].

Legal Career:

Allama Iqbal was also known as the advocate due to his productive writing. He arrived before the Lahore High Court in both civil and criminal matters. There were numerous results according to Allama Iqbal[1].

Allama’s Death:

When Allama Iqbal returns from Spain and Afghanistan’s trip, he had been suffered from the throat illness.  He helped “Chaudhary Niaz Ali Khan” to built the “Dar-ul-Islam Trust” organization in Jamalpur and spent the final years of life[1].

Concept of Pakistan according to Iqbal & Jinnah:

The Muslims were separated from the Congress, it was ideologically wrong that Muslims and Hindus cannot live with each other. Allama Iqbal returned from London and took the handle of the Muslim League. He had a strong friendship with the Jinnah. Allama Iqbal knows that the Jinnah was the person who can take charge of the Muslim League and maintain the party in-front of the British and Congress. Allama Iqbal wrote a letter to the Quaid-e-Azam[1]:

“I know you are a busy man, but I do hope you won’t mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India.”

At that time Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a member of the Congress and would continue talks with them. Jinnah does not want India to part into two pieces. But, Allama Iqbal insisted Quaid-e-Azam that Hindus and Muslims are two nations, they both have different ideas. They cannot live with each other and wrote a letter on 21 June 1937 to Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah[1].

“A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are.”

Allama Iqbal remained as the President of the Muslim League, he criticizes the Quaid’s political. He continuously supports the Muslim League and the Muslim Leaders. Allama Iqbal Speaks about the future of the Muslims living in India[1]. He said:

“There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah’s hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism, and This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defense of our national existence. The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now, none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims.”

Allama Iqbal and the Muslim Leaders

Islamic politics rejuvenescence:

There were about six lectures which were published in 1930 in Lahore and after by the “Oxford University” in 1934 in the book “The reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam”. These six lectures were taught in “Madras, Hyderabad, and Aligarh.” Allama Iqbal repelled the political attitudes and attached the Muslim politicians that were misguided[1].

He traveled to “Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran and Turkey” and promoted the ideas of the great Muslim Political co-operation. Allama Iqbal was elected as the Muslim League’s President in 1930 in Allahabad and the sessions occur in Lahore in 1932. He gave the state for Muslim-majority in northwest India on 29 December 1930[1]:

“I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of Northwest India.”

Allama Iqbal said that Islam has the “legal concepts” with “civic significance” with the “religious concepts”. He was stressed about the Muslims of India that they need the political unity of Muslim communities but the Muslim community into the wider community that was not based on Islamic Principles[1].

 Thus, Allama Iqbal was the first Muslim Leader who gave the idea of “Two nation theory”. He remained the president of the Muslim League and deliver the speeches and publish articles for the Muslims of India[1].

Allama Iqbal and the Pakistan Flag

Patron of Tolu-e-Islam:

Allama Iqbal was the founder of the Tolu-e-Islam. He had been the history, politics, and culture writer and the journal of the Muslim in British India. According to the instructions of Syed Nazeer, Allama Iqbal edited the journal and named after Iqbal’s poem “Tulu-i-Islam” in 1935. Niazi devoted the first issue of the journal of the Allama Iqbal. This journal played an important role in the movement of Pakistan. Ghulam Pervez had been provided several articles in its early versions of the journal[1].

Scholar Works of Allama Muhammad Iqbal:


Allama Iqbal wrote poetry in the Persian and Urdu as well, he wrote about 12000 verses of poetry and 7000 verses were about in the Persian Language. “Asrar-i-Khudi” was written in the Persian language in 1915 and it was the first book that was published. Many cities liked the poetry work of the Allam Iqbal. “Asrar-i-Khudi” represents the Urdu word “Khudi” or “Self”. Allama Iqbal uses the word “Khudi” means “Rooh” that is being used in the Quran for a anticipate spark which is present in all human being. 

Allama Iqbal wrote “Rumuz-i-Bekhudi” which represent the Selflessness, he explains the code of Islam that how to live your life according to the Islamic ways. He said in this book that, a person should keep his characteristic complete and perfect. Allama Iqbal wrote poems that were published in 1917, these poems tell us the religious, social aspects, the relationship between the individual and the society[1].


Bang-e-Dara was the first collection of the Allama Iqbal of the Urdu Poetry which was published in 1924. Bang-e-Dara was written in three different periods of life. He wrote a song about India that was “Tarana-e-Hind” and the song of the Community “Milli Tarana” in 1905. And the second set of poems was written between 1905-1908, when he was getting education in Europe. Allama Iqbal’s mostly worked in the Urdu language from 1930[2].

Allama Iqbal’s book Bang-e-Dara

Link to download book:

Bal-e-Jibril (Wings of Gabriele):

Allama Iqbal wrote the book Bal-e-Gabriele which represents the best Urdu poetry and was imaginative by a visit to Spain. Where he studied about the historical places and heritage of the Kingdom Moors. Bal-e-Gabriele consisted of ghazals, poems, quatrains, and epigrams that carry a strong sense of religious attachments[3].

Link to download book:


Zarb-e-Kalim also named “The Rod of Moses”) is a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal. It was published in 1936, 2 years before his death. In this book, he describes the political manifesto. Allama Iqbal also is known as “the poet of the East”, which explained the injustice of modern nations, exploitation of weak nations, and especially the described the Indian Muslims. The most famous book was published in 2002 from “Iqbal Academy Pakistan”[3].

Zarb-e-Kaleem by Allama Iqbal

Link to download book:

Speech by Orya maqbool jan on Allama Iqbal


1.            wikipedia, 14th July 2020.

3.            amiqbalpoetry, 14th July 2020.

4.            wikipedia/The_rod_of_moses, 14th July 2020.

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