|Date of Birth||31st July 1893|
|Place||Kathiawar, Bombay, India|
|Death||9th July 1967|
|Cause of Death||Heart failure|
|Higher education||Competitive University Kolkata (1919)|
Fatima Jinnah was born on 31st July 1893 in Kathiawar. At that time, there was British rule over India. “Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah” was his brother. He was the eldest of his family and Fatima Jinnah was the youngest of his family. Her father’s name was “Poonjah Jinnah” was a famous merchant in Karachi. Fatima Jinnah and her 6 brothers and sisters, but Fatima Jinnah were closest to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. When his father died, Muhammad Ali Jinnah took care of her. Fatima Jinnah joined the “Bombay in 1902” and also joined the hostel thereafter her parents been died. Because she was taken care of by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. After that, she got admission to Kolkatta University where she got an education from the “Dr.R.Ahmed” in a dental college. She opened her dental clinic at “Bombay” after graduation from Kolkatta University, in 1923. She was always with the Quaid-e-Azam when the power got by the Muslim League. She worked for the Muslims and also for Pakistan. She died in Karachi on 9th July 1967. She was also known as “Mother of the Nation” because of her hardworking and performance.
Life of Madr-e-Millat:
Fatima Jinnah was born in Kathiawar on 31st July 1893, was the youngest of her brothers and sister in his family. Her father’s name was “Poonjah Jinnah” and the mother’s name was “Mithibai”. After the death of the Poonjah Jinnah, her brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the guardian of the family. He was interested in dentist education and got an education from the “Kolkatta University” where she met “Retired Doctor Ahmed” in the dental college. She had total seven siblings in which the Fatima was the youngest.
- Muhammad Ali
- Bunde Ali
- Rehmat Ali
- Ahmed Ali
- Fatima Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the elder one and got the responsibility of the family guardian after the death of the father in 1901. After getting an education, she opened the dental clinic in Bombay in 1923.
She lived with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and remained with him until her sister married to Rattanbai Petit in 1918. Rattanbai’s husband died in 1929 and after the death of her husband, Fatima Jinnah closed her clinic and lived with her brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah. She became the honor of her brother’s house. She lived with her brother till her death on 11th September 1948. Once upon a time, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was paying attribute to his sister Fatima Jinnah and said
“My sister was like a bright ray of light and hope whenever I came back home and met her. Anxieties would have been much greater and my health much worse but for the restraint imposed by her”
Politics and Muhammad Ali Jinnah:
She was always with her brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah and worked with him. She always with him even on the Public Places. Rana Liaqat Ali Khan founded the APWA (All Pakistan Women Association), at first Fatima Jinnah formed the “Women relief Committee”.
She took the responsibility of the “Combined Opposition Party of Pakistan (COPP)” and returned to the political life. She explained about the opponent that was “Ayub Khan”, was from the dictatorship. He was from the first line of the rivalries. In the rallies, she gathered about 250,000 people in “Dhaka”. The route was about 239 miles long from Dhaka to the “Chittagong”. The train was late about 22 hours due to the crowd and everyone dragged the train on the station at the emergency cord, this train later named “Freedom special”. At the station, everyone wanted to communicate with her. The crowd after called the “Fatima Jinnah” as the “Maadr-e-Millat” in the Urdu Language and English “Mother of the nation”.
She addressed many times in the crowd and argued with the public that “Ayub khan” gave control of the Indus river to India. She compelled the Ayub khan and took the Indus river back from India. Due to this argument, she wanted to end this agreement and the river again got. She lost the election with some margin but some provinces were in her control. If she had the direct election against another party she can win, it was the views of the reporters and chronologists.
Mother of the Nation:
Fatima Jinnah’s effort and the hard-working came to a sweet result and she became the nation’s heroin. The people of Pakistan called her the “Maadr-e-Millat” which means that the “mother of the nation.” She worked for the “Pakistan Freedom Movement” and challenged when she was about 71 years old. She did not take part in politics before the independence of Pakistan. She visited the “East Pakistan” in 1954. She wished to get Government after the Ayub khan imposition of martial law. Yet, when the opposition party got government, she was strongly in the favor of the Democratic and also support the opposition. Being the sister of the beloved brother, the people of Pakistan gave respect to her. She came to become the democratic aspirations of the people. The electoral landscape changed when the Quaid-e-Azam want to enter into the Government and become the president in 1965. She self-declared “President” and challenged to Ayub Khan when the election was not held.
There were elections for the President held in 1965 and before the announcement of the democratic elections, which was held the constitute of the Electoral College for the President and the assembly elections. The two parties were opposing the elections, the convention Muslim League and the combined opposition parties. From these opposite parties, five parties had the nine points of the program that wanted the direct restoration of the elections for the youngster and the democratization of the constitution of 1962. The opposition parties were the combined parties that did not unite and didn’t want to possess any unity of the thought the action. They cannot select the presidential candidates from all of them and therefore they gave the chance to become President of Pakistan.
At last, now it’s the time for the elections which were held on 2nd January 1965. There were four contenders, the names are given as below:
- Ayub Khan
- Fatima Jinnah
- Two obscure persons with no party affiliation
There was not enough time for the campaign, one month. In this time there were not allowed the party members to present the nine-projection meeting which was organized by the Election Commission of Pakistan. This meeting was only appeared by the Electoral College and the affiliates of the media. There was not allowed the public from attending the projection meetings, due to this, Jinnah’s image got better.
Ayub khan’s Advantage:
From all of this situation, General Ayub Khan had a huge advantage for the other remaining candidates. The second amendment of the constitution had been confirmed when he was the President even the elections held. He wanted to utilize the state facilities as the head of the state, not as the President of the Convention Muslim League and he also did not want to shillyshally the constitute on the democratic substance. The bureaucracy and the business, there were two benefits of the Ayub Khan government which helped him in the election campaign. He was taking the advantage of the political opportunities and wanted to take all the discontented elements together that helped him and there were the students that were assured the ordinance and the journals and the scrutiny of the press laws. President Ayub Khan also gathered the support of the scholar and said that the women have not the right to be head of the Islamic State.
Fatima Jinnah’s Campaign:
Fatima Jinnah had been separated herself from the political fight and political wars after the Quaid’s death. Her motive was to move through the streets and roads in the cities and rural areas of the Muslim Country which added the popularity in her name and work. She claimed that Ayub Khan is a dictator. Due to her effort and hardworking, the public got passion. She attracted many crowds from the west and east Pakistan. She had to suffer many problems and drawbacks. There were many problems she had to face like prejudicial and unfit movement, meager assets, and the indirect elections complete the independent structure.
Fatima Jinnah was won from Ayub khan and got fame in the country in 1965, and there was cheating by the electoral college, and Ayub Khan became the President of Pakistan. She believed that she had won the elections because the election was held via ballet. There were 80,000 basic democrats in the electoral college which were easily manipulated.
Importance of the elections:
The importance of these elections is such that the women were contesting the highest rank in the political office of the country. The mainstream religious political parties include Jamaat-e-Islami which was leading by the Maulana Maududi. He said that the women could not get the right to hold on to the highest rank of a Muslim country. Thus, he left that speaking and followed the Fatima Jinnah’s contention. The election result showed that there was no prejudice against the women holding offices and the key players in the politics of the country. According to the Liaqat H. Merchant,
“the Court was inclined to repose more trust in the avowed non-sectarian public stance of the Quaid and his sister”
Death of Fatima Jinnah:
Fatima Jinnah died on 9th July 1976 in Karachi. The sources said that it was heart failure due to this she had died, but there were numerous reasons which gave the clue that “Liaqat Ali Khan” was killed by that group. The nephew of Fatima Jinnah and the Quaid-e-Azam, Pirbai, reignited the disagreement by suggesting that she was killed. She was buried in Karachi, next to her brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah, at “Mazar-e-Quaid”.
Admirations and heritage:
Fatima Jinnah was most popular among the people of Pakistan and she was considered as the greatest female that Pakistan was produced. Fatima Jinnah became the source for the awakening of women’s rights. In Pakistan, she became the national symbol that took the stand for the nation. On the other hand, Ayub Khan had died in poor health, and yet he got any honors to him. But Fatima Jinnah got great respect and fame even after the death of the society. The Government of Pakistan established a gravestone in the honor of remembering.
1. historypak. 29th July 2020; Available from: https://historypak.com/fatima-jinnah/
2. Wikipedia. 29th July 2020; Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima_Jinnah