Scientists of Pakistan

Scientists of Pakistan
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Basic informationHaroon AhmedAsad Ali AbidiJavaid Laghari
  NationalityBritish PakistaniPakistani, AmericanPakistan
  Date of Birth2nd March 193612th July 19561956
  Place of BirthBritish IndiaPeshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, PakistanHyderabad, Pakistan
  Age84 years old64 years old60 years old
  School / CollegeSt Patrick’s High School, Karachi, PakistanCadet college Hassan Abdal, Pakistan, 
Dudley College of Technology, UK (High school)  
Early education from hometown, Hyderabad
  UniversityUniversity of Cambridge King’s College,
Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory,
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge  
Imperial College, London
University of California, Berkeley
Sindh university,
The Middle East Technical university,  
State University of New York 
  OccupationScientistScientistElectrical engineer
  CareerA faculty member of the engineering department, Cambridge   Professor of microelectronics in the Physics department Head of microelectronics research center until his retirement 2003   Former Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge   Fellow of the Institute of Physics   Fellow of Institution of Electrical Engineers.  The University of California, Los Angles (1985)     Member of Technical Staff at Advanced LSI Development Laboratory (1981-1984)   Visiting Faculty Researcher at Hewlett Packard Laboratories (1989)   Program Secretary IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) (1984-1990)   General chairman of Symposium on VLSI Circuits (1992)   Secretary of IEEE Solid-State Circuits Council (1990-1991)   Editor of IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits (1992-1995)Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PACE)     Higher Education Commission (HEC)   State University of New York (SUNY)   National aeronautics and space administration (NASA)   Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers   ZAB institute of Science and Technology
  AwardsDoctor of Science (ScD)   Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng)  IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award in solid-state circuits (2008)   IEEE Third Millennium medal   IEEE Donald G. Fink prize paper Award   Member of National Academy of Engineering  Tamgha-e-Imtiaz (1999)   IEEE Leadership Award (1994)
  Research  Electrical engineering MicroelectronicsElectrical engineering,
Electronics engineering  
Electrical engineering
  Famous forMicroelectronics TechnologyRF CMOS   RF Circuit modeling  Aerospace technology,   Nuclear deterrence development,  
Space power electronic systems,  
Nuclear energy program,   Informational technology,   Quantum information,   Quantum computer    

Abstract:

Haroon Ahmed is a Pakistani researcher and a scientist; he is known to be as the professional in the field of microelectronics and electrical designing engineering. He did a lot of work in his field. Asad Ali Abidi is a prominent scholar and is an individual from the National Academy of Engineering and The World Academy of Sciences. He got the IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award in Solid-State Circuits in 2008 In 2015, UC, Berkeley remembered him as a recognized graduate for his commitments to the hypothesis and practice of simple and RF circuits. In this we will discuss about the electrical engineers and the electrical designers which did a lot of work in their field. At first, we discussed about many scientists which did many inventions and discoveries. These discoveries are very useful for the humans use daily life.

Haroon Ahmed:

Haroon Ahmed FREng (brought into the world 2 March 1936), is a British Pakistani researcher in practicing the fields of microelectronics and electrical designing. He is Emeritus Professor of Microelectronics at the Cavendish Laboratory, the Physics Department of the University of Cambridge, Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering[1].

Computer Laboratory 75th Anniversary
Computer Laboratory 75th Anniversary

Education:

Ahmed was taught at St Patrick’s High School, Karachi, trailed by a college degree at Imperial College London. He proceeded to get his Ph.D. in 1963 and his Doctor of Science degrees in 1996 from the University of Cambridge[1].

Career:

Ahmed was designated an employee of the Engineering Department, Cambridge in 1963 and worked there for a very long time before moving to the Physics Department where he was elevated to Professor of Microelectronics and was the Head of the Microelectronics Research Center until his retirement in 2003. He is a previous Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and is presently an Honorary Fellow. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, and Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers[2].

Research:

Ahmed has distributed countless papers in logical and designing examination diaries on microelectronics, miniature and nanofabrication, electron and particle shaft lithography, semiconductor single electron gadgets, and related themes. He set up various significant coordinated efforts among industry and the University remembering the Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory for the Microelectronics Research Center. He is the creator of P.J. Spread bury of Electronics for Engineers (CUP 1973) and An Introduction to Physical Electronics with A.H.W. Beck (Elsevier, 1968, no longer available). He was chosen as a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1990[1].

Dr Haroon Ahmed & Dr M. Sarwar (1930-2009)
Dr Haroon Ahmed & Dr M. Sarwar (1930-2009)

He has filled in as a Syndic of Cambridge University Press, as Non-Executive Director of the Addenbrooke’s Hospital NHS Trust, as President of the Philosophical Society, as an individual from the MacRobert Committee which grants a prize every year to the most imaginative designing organization in the UK and is at present an individual from the Development Board of Imperial College. He has likewise functioned as an advisor to a few significant hardware modern organizations. He was chosen as a Fellow of Corpus Christi College in 1967, became Warden of Leckhampton House (the College’s Graduate Campus) in 1993 and Master in 2000, succeeding Professor Sir Tony Wrigley and surrendered in 2006 to instruct the Government concerning Pakistan on Higher Education matters[1].

He was the College’s 48th Master since its establishment in 1352. In his time as Master, the College praised its 650th commemoration, the Taylor Library venture was actualized, the Conservation Center for original copies was manufactured and the task on the computerized imaging of the College’s Parker assortment was begun. [1]

Cambridge Engineering book of Haroon Ahmed 9781908990686
Cambridge Engineering book of Haroon Ahmed 9781908990686

Asad Ali Abidi:

Asad Ali Abidi Ph.D. is born on 12th July 1956. He is a Pakistani electrical designer who fills in as a tenured educator at the University of California, Los Angeles, and is the debut holder of the Abdus Salam Chair at LUMS. Brought up in Pakistan, Abidi got his B.S. from Imperial College London followed by an M.S. furthermore, Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1981. He filled in as an electrical specialist with Bell Labs and in January 1985 joined UCLA as a tenured scholastic. In 2007, he left for a long-term vacation to fill in as an establishing senior member of the designing school at Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and got back to Los Angeles in 2009. In 2017, he was named as the debut holder of the Abdus Salam Chair at LUMS[3].

Asad Abidi named inaugural holder of Abdus Salam Chair
Asad Abidi named inaugural holder of Abdus Salam Chair

Abidi is a prominent scholar and is an individual from the National Academy of Engineering and The World Academy of Sciences. He got the IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award in Solid-State Circuits in 2008 In 2015, UC, Berkeley remembered him as a recognized graduate for his commitments to the hypothesis and practice of simple and RF circuits[3].

Teacher Asad Ali Abidi, a recognized researcher of electrical designing, will be the debut holder of the Abdus Salam Chair at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), an announcement said on Wednesday. Teacher Abidi is related to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The explanation which named him “a motivating educator of technical studies and designing”, said that Professor Abidi was popular for his pivotal advancements in single-chip radios. Electronic gadgets and circuits, ascribed to his examination, structure the premise of a considerable lot of the present cell phones[4].

Life and education:

He got his B.Sc. degree (with top-notch praises) in electrical designing from the Imperial College, London, the U.K. in 1976. Later he went to the United States where he went to the University of California, Berkeley. He got his M.Sc. degrees in electrical designing in 1978 and a Ph.D. in 1981 under the oversight of Robert Meyer. He is an IEEE Fellow and an individual from the United States National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He joined LUMS School of Science and Engineering as its first Dean and helped shape the beginning of this new institution. The school is demonstrated along the lines of the world’s driving specialized colleges, essentially MIT and Caltech, and is required to deliver another age of researchers and designers, to help change the financial and specialized scene of Pakistan[5].

Asad A. Abidi - Engineering and Technology
Asad A. Abidi – Engineering and Technology

Academic career:

Since 1985, Asad has held a situation at UCLA, where he is at present a full professor. From 1981 to 1984, he was with Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, as a Member of Technical Staff at the Advanced LSI Development Laboratory. He was a Visiting Faculty Researcher at Hewlett Packard Laboratories in 1989. He is one of the main two Pakistani-inception individuals from the NAE. and is perceived as ISSCC top ten authors. He is notable and has been credited for his examination of RF-CMOS circuits which empowered the remote transformation in the late 1990s[5].

He filled in as the Program Secretary for the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) from 1984 to 1990 and was the General Chairman of the Symposium on VLSI Circuits in 1992. He was the Secretary of the IEEE Solid-State Circuits Council from 1990 to 1991. From 1992 to 1995, he was the Editor of the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits[5].

Personal life:

Asad Abidi was conceived in 1957 to a structural specialist and a homemaker. His dad, Asghar Ali Abidi, was chosen, with his dear companion Ismail Gulgee, to make a trip to Cambridge, Massachusetts to go to Harvard University on a grant, where he thusly held a lectureship position. His dad before long got back to Pakistan to help plan the Mangla Dam (an “Abidi Guesthouse” actually remains in his honor). Asad grew up moving around a wide range of districts of Pakistan until he was at long last positioned in Cadet College, Hasan Abdal. At 16 years old, he was shipped off to England to live with his uncle. There, Asad went to a little polytechnic school where he befriended his educator. He took A-level intense training and wound up doing very well in his tests, making sure about him a situation in Imperial College, London on the grant. Even though Asad was altogether more youthful than the entirety of his schoolmates, he figured out how to jump up to the highest point of his group and hence graduated with the most noteworthy conceivable honors[5].

At 19 years old, Asad ventured out to America to seek after Master and Doctoral investigations at the University of California, Berkeley, dismissing a grant offer from Stanford University. After getting his Ph.D. he was extended to an employment opportunity position at the Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. At Bell Labs, Asad turned out to be old buddies with future Nobel Laureate George E. Smith[5].

Asad Abidi Well Known Pakistani Scientist
Asad Abidi Well Known Pakistani Scientist

Awards and recognitions[5]:

•  2009 Third World Academy of Sciences

•  2008 UCLA HSSEAS Lockheed Martin Award for Excellence in Teaching

•  2008 IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award in Solid-State Circuits

“For pioneering and sustained contributions in the development of RF-CMOS”

•             2007 National Academy of Engineering

“For contributions to the development of integrated circuits for MOS RF communications”

•             Top 10 contributors to the ISSCC in its 50-year history

•             2000 IEEE Third Millennium Medal

•             1998 Design Contest Award at the Design Automation Conference

•             1997 ISSCC Jack Raper Outstanding Technology Directions Paper Award

•             1997 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award

•             1996 Best Paper Award of the 21st European Solid-State Circuits Conference

•             1988 TRW Award for Innovative Teaching Postdoctoral Research Associate

Books by Asad Ali Abidi[6]:

•             Analysis and design of IF and RF circuits for SDR receivers: Anti-aliasing Pre-filters, Accurate and Low-noise Quadrature LO Generation and Injection-locked Dividers

•             The Designer’s Guide to High-Purity Oscillators (The Designer’s Guide Book Series)

•             Integrated Circuits for Wireless Communications

•             Effects of random & periodic excitations on relaxation oscillators (Memorandum)

•             On the dynamics of Josephson junction circuits (Memorandum)

Asad Ali Abidi research articles [6]:

•             Direct-conversion radio transceivers for digital communications.

•             A filtering technique to lower LC oscillator phase noise

•             Noise in RF CMOS mixers: A simple physical model

•             A 900 MHz CMOS LC-oscillators with quadrature output

•             Phase noise and jitter in CMOS ring oscillator

•             Large suspended indicators on silicon and their use in 2-mu m CMOS RF amplifiers

•             CMOS mixers and polyphase filters for large image rejection

•             Physical processes of phase noise in differential LC oscillators

•             RF CMOS oscillators with switched tuning

•             The path to the software-defined radio receiver

•             A 6 b 1.3Gsample/s A/D converter in 0.35-/spl mu/mCMOS

•             An 800 MHz-6-GHz software defines wireless receiver in 900-nm CMOS

•             A 9 b 1.25 ps resolution coarse-fine time to digital converter in 900 nm CMOS that amplified a time residue

•             A single-chip 900 MHz spread spectrum wireless trans-receiver in 1-/spl mu/m CMOS.I. Architecture and transmitter design

•             A 3-10 GHz low noise amplifier with wideband LC-Ladder matching network

•             A 1 GHz CMOS RF front-end IC for a direct conversion wireless receiver

•             High-frequency noise measurements on FET’S with small dimensions

•             Flickers noise in CMOS transistors from subthreshold to strong inversions at various temperature

•             RF CMOS comes of age

•             Low power radio-frequency ICs for portable communication

Javaid Laghari:

Introduction:

Dr. Javaid Laghari was born on 1957 in Hyderabad, Karachi, Pakistan. He is a Pakistani American Professor of electrical engineering, computer science and also wrote 4 books. Dr. Javaid Laghari is Chairperson of the Trust for Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Knowledge (TIEK), which is as of now during the time spent setting up a college in Houston, TX. He has served in six key situations in the last 35+ years[7].

Javaid Laghari at the Clinton School
Javaid Laghari at the Clinton School

Chairperson of HEC of Pakistan:

Beforehand he was Chairperson of the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, with the status of Federal Minister. He has likewise filled in as Coordinator General of COMSTECH, the OIC Ministerial Standing Committee on Scientific and Technology Cooperation – which is the association of OIC involving S&T Ministers of 57 Islamic Countries. He was the establishing President of a main private college SZABIST, and tenured full Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of Space Power Institute at SUNY Buffalo. He as of late filled in as Commissioner at the Ministry of Education, UAE. Dr. Laghari was a nearby partner of previous Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and has additionally filled in as Senator in the Pakistan Parliament. Dr. Laghari’s advantage is in energy stockpiling and beat power gadgets and their application to space and other cutting-edge advancements and frameworks. He has recently gone to the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “The Behavior of Systems in a Space Environment” in the UK in 1991; and the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Quick Electrical and Optical Diagnostic Principles and Techniques” in Italy in 1983. Just the top 100 researchers from NATO nations are welcome to go to these Advanced Institutes[7].

While at SUNY Buffalo, he gained over $ 5 million in research subsidizing and set up the Space Power Institute and performed supported examination for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Naval Research Lab (NRL), the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), the Strategic Defense Initiatives (SDI), Hughes Aircraft and the Boeing Aerospace Company. Dr. Laghari was the Chairman of the 1992 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering, USA, and has sorted out numerous International Conferences and led various Sessions and Workshops in the United States. He has additionally filled in as the Chairman of the Technical Standards Committee on Radiation Effects, and as the Representative on the United States Activities Board on Man and Radiation. Dr. Laghari has energy for composing and talking. During his residency at SUNY Buffalo, he distributed more than 120 examination papers and introduced more than 70 papers at International Conferences[7].

Writer of IEEE:

He is additionally the writer of an IEEE Standard and has distributed two Book Chapters and a Monograph. As Senator and as Chairperson HEC, he conveyed more than 37 feature addresses, including at The Clinton School of Public Service, The Brookings Institution, Woodrow Wilson International Center, The School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The European Union Parliamentary Conference, and the Conference of the OIC Ministers of Higher Education and Scientific Research. The talk at the Clinton School (out of 1000 talks up until now) has been the third most-watched program on the web. Notwithstanding the 37 feature addresses, Dr. Laghari has conveyed 117 Chief Guest addresses, 61 welcomed addresses, 47 meetings distributed, and more than 88 TV interviews[7]. He has additionally distributed three books on Leadership, and 7 of his articles have shown up in Newsweek magazine. He has as of late composed his first fiction-spine chiller “Ifrit” which is right now getting looked at for film creation. Dr. Laghari is a Senior Member of the ACM, Senior Member of the IEEE, and Member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He is the beneficiary of the Distinguished Leadership Award, 1987, the IEEE Award for Leadership and Dedicated Services, 1994, and the pined for public honor ‘Tamgha-e-Imtiaz’ gave by the President of Pakistan in 1998. Dr. Laghari is recorded in the American Men and Women of Science’s, Who in Science and Engineering’s, Who in the East, and’s Who in the World. He lives with his better half and two children in Houston, TX. [7]

HEC announces university ranking by Junaid Lighari
HEC announces university ranking by Junaid Lighari

Education:

Laghari was conceived in Hyderabad. He went to Sindh University where he joined up with the Department of Electrical Engineering and got his BEng in Electrical Engineering. Laghari at that point ventured out to Ankara, Turkey, and finished his post-graduate examinations at the Middle East Technical University and got his MS in electrical designing. He at that point ventured out to the United States and joined the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York where he got his Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 1980[7].

Dr. Laghari is scholarly on the most fundamental level. He is worried about the condition of instruction, both in schools and colleges, in Pakistan. He is effectively associated with the instructive issues of the nation. He has raised numerous worries on the Senate floor and has suggested an expansion in the lower training spending plan with the goal that the education pace of Pakistan can be significantly expanded. Dr. Laghari has confidence in liberal instruction and supports the secularization of the prospectus. He is a solid defender of training for young ladies and ladies, particularly from the immature zones. Dr. Laghari’s objective is that Pakistani colleges join the positions of driving colleges in Asia. He has just accomplished this objective by making SZABIST among the top colleges in Asia as positioned by BusinessWeek, AsiaInc, Time, and CNN.[8]

Research work:

Laghari worked in the United States as a specialist at NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory of AFOSR, the Office of Naval Research, the Naval Research Lab, the Defense Nuclear Agency, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, the Strategic Defense Initiative, Hughes Aircraft, and the Boeing Aerospace Company. He was director of the 1992 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and has composed various International Conferences and led countless Sessions and Workshops in the United States[7].

Energy and power:

Pakistan faces a huge test in conquering its capacity and energy deficiency. The utilization of power is for the most part viewed as a file of financial flourishing. The present per capita power utilization in Pakistan is around one 10th of the world normal. The present status of issues in the energy area is profoundly inadmissible. Pakistan needs furthermore at any rate of 8000 MWs by 2010 to meet the energy prerequisites of the individuals. Dr. Laghari through his dynamic support in the PPP Policy Planning Committee, PPP Manifesto Committee and the Senate Standing Committee on Power and Water is putting forth attempts to guarantee that the Energy Crisis in Pakistan is settled and the nation is headed to quick industrialization through accessibility of wealth modest and dependable electric influence[9].

Dr Javaid R Laghari, Chairperson, HEC
Dr Javaid R Laghari, Chairperson, HEC

Books by Javaid Laghari[10]:

“Reflections on Benazir Bhutto”, Editor Dr. Javaid Laghari, SZABIST Publications, February 2008 (152 pages)

“Leaders of Pakistan”, Editor Dr. Javaid Laghari, SZABIST Publications, June 2009, (102 pages).

“The Wizardry of Leadership”, Authors Dr. Javaid Laghari and Naheed Malabari, Paramount Books, October 2011 (243 pages)”

Articles by Javaid Laghari[10]:

“Technology-Enabled Nations”, Express Tribune, June 6, 2017

“Higher Education Reforms”, The News, May 24, 2016

“Ranking Universities”, The News, Mar 26, 2016

“The Transforming Social Sciences Discipline”, The News, Feb 24, 2016

“Muslim Universities”, The News, Jan 31, 2016

“Sands of Innovation”, The News, October 3, 2015.

“In Search of a Vice-Chancellor”, The News, April 18, 2015.

“Top Notch Universities”, The News, April 22, 2014.

“Fixing Higher Education”, The News, Jan 31, 2014.

“Can Online Learning Help Pakistan”, Express Tribune, Jan 10, 2014?

“Glacier Melting and Hydroelectric Uncertainty in South Asia”, Express Tribune, Jan 3, 2014.

“In Defence of the HEC”, The News, Dec 21, 2013.

‘An Environment for Education’, The News, Nov 29, 2013.

Confession Ex-HEC head apologises for plagiarism
Confession Ex-HEC head apologises for plagiarism

‘Melting Glaciers bring Energy Uncertainty’, Nature, Oct 31, 2013.

‘Knowledge and the Tigers’, The News, Aug 1, 2013.

‘State of Higher Education’, The News, July 31, 2013.

‘Research should lead the way’, The News, July 16, 2013.

‘Pakistan Universities Excel Globally’, Jang Group HEC Special Report, July 2013.

‘Flying High’, The News, July 6, 2013.

‘Challenges to Higher Education’, The Jang, June 6, 2013.

‘Higher Education’, The News, June 6, 2013.

‘Higher Education and Economic Development’, Express Tribune, May 29, 2013.

‘HEC: Points & Counterpoints’, The News, Mar 14, 2013.

‘HEC and Degree Verification’, The News, March 5, 2013.

‘Let the Task Begin’, The News, February 27, 2013.

‘HEC’s Working’, Letter to the Editor, Dawn, February 14, 2013.

‘HEC: The Next 10 Years’, News watch, January 2013.

‘HEC Working to Promote Scholarships’, Letter to the Editor, Dawn, January 28,

2013.

‘Power Tussle – HEC View’, Letter to the Editor, Dawn, December 27, 2012.

‘Pakistan and the OIC’, the News, November 19, 2012 ‘HEC: the next 10 Years’, The News, December 10, 2012.

‘Laurels for Pakistani Research’, The News, August 2, 2012

Building Universities’, The News, June 25, 2012.

‘Higher Education and National Development’, The News Education Expo Supplement, June 13, 2012.

‘The Changing Dynamics of Higher Education’, June 13, 2012.

‘Knowledge Economy’, The News, May 21, 2012.

‘Laptops are the Answer’, Express Tribune, May 6, 2012.

‘Ranking Universities’, Express Tribune, March 2, 2012.

‘Revolution in Higher Education’, The News, February 15, 2012.

‘Soft Revolution in Higher Education’, Dawn, February 4, 2012.

‘Empires of the Mind – The correlation between investing in education and economic prosperity is an axiomatic one’, Newsweek, February 3, 2012.

‘The Energy Crisis’, The News, January 14, 2012.

‘We’re Killing Education’, The News, December 30, 2011.

‘Electric Energy Options’, Newswatch, December 2011.

‘A Quiet Revolution in Higher Education’, Express Tribune, November 11, 2011.

‘Power for Peace’, The News, October 28, 2011.

‘Potential of our Youth’, The News, June 23, 2011.

Conclusion:

We discussed about 3 scientists of Pakistan which did inventions in their fields. In which, there are some electrical designers and one of them from the micro-electronics. These are the positive faces of Pakistan which represent the country in other countries and make the Pakistan proud. There are many scientists which worked a lot in the education field and published for the public reading. Here Abidi’s research is very important in which he describe about the CMOS, mCMOS and other such types of inventions.

References:

1.            peoplepill. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://peoplepill.com/people/haroon-ahmed/

2.            howold. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://www.howold.co/person/haroon-ahmed/biography

3.            peoplepilld. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://peoplepill.com/people/asad-abidi/

4.            tribune. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://tribune.com.pk/story/1292051/honouring-nobel-laureate-prof-asad-abidi-named-inaugural-holder-abdus-salam-chair

5.            enacademic. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/9083493

6.            scholar.google. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=44y2Oc4AAAAJ&hl=en

7.            wikipedia. 29th October 2020; Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Javaid_Laghari

8.            laghari. 29th October 2020; Available from: http://www.laghari.org/CommunityService.htm

9.            laghari/CommunityService. 29th October 2020; Available from: http://www.laghari.org/CommunityService.htm

10.          laghari/articles. 29th Ocotber 2020; Available from: http://www.laghari.org/Articles.htm


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