|Basic information||Dr. Abdus Salam||Ahmad Hasan Dani||Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi|
|Date of Birth||29th January 1926||20th June 1920||20th November 1903|
|Place of Birth||Jhang, Punjab, British India (present-day Punjab, Pakistan)||Bansa, British India||Patiala, near Allahabad, United Provinces, British India|
|Date of Death||21st November 1996||26th January 2009||22nd January 1981|
|Age||70 years old||88 years old||77 years old|
|School / College||A local school from Lahore||N / A||Matriculation in 1916|
|University||Government College University of Lahore, Punjab State, Punjab University (MA) St. John’s College, Cambridge (Ph.D.)||Banaras Hindu University||Aligarh Muslim University St. Stephen’s College Cambridge University|
|Career||1951- 1996||1947 – 2009||1948 – 1981|
|Status||Theoretical physicist.||Linguist, Archaeologist, historian||Historian, scholar, write|
|Spouse||Amtul Hafeez Begum (m. 1949–1996)||N / A||N / A|
|Institutions||PAEC, SUPARCO PINSTECH, Punjab University, Imperial College London, Government College University, The University of Cambridge, ICTP, COMSATS, TWAS, Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute||Quaid-e-Azam University||Delhi University, Punjab University, Columbia University, Karachi University, National Language Authority|
|Awards||Abdus Salam Medal, Abdus Salam Shield of Honor in Mathematics,||Hilal-e-Imtiaz (2000) Sitara-e-Imtiaz (1969) Bundesverdienstkreuz Légion d’honneur Palmes Academiques||Sitara-e-Pakistan, Pakistan Post issued commemorative postage in his name|
Dr. Abdus Salam:
Mohammad Abdus Salam was conceived on January 29, 1926, in Santokdas, Punjab, British India (presently Pakistan). His dad was Chaudhry Muhammad Hussain, a training authority, and his mom was Hajira Nabi Baksh. Abdus was the oldest of their eight kids.
Abdus went to a class in the town of Jhang. Since the beginning, he has indicated colossal ability in arithmetic and science. He additionally built up a long-lasting adoration for verse in English, Persian, and Punjabi. At age 14, he astounded the individuals of Jhang when he accomplished the best grades ever found in Punjab University’s selection test. Almost the entire town ended up celebrating his accomplishment. As anyone might expect, he was given a college grant. He graduated with a Master’s certificate in Mathematics in 1946, age 20.
In 1949, age 23, Salam wedded his 22-year-old cousin Amtul Hafeez Hussain. The couple had three little girls and a child. As per Islamic law, a man may have more than one spouse. In November 1967, Salam wedded the biophysicist Louise Johnson, with whom he had a child and a little girl. In 1974, Salam was disheartened when Pakistan’s administration passed a law proclaiming Ahmadis to be non-Muslims. In 1980, after he got the Nobel Prize, he was welcomed as a respected visitor to the Quaid-e-Azam University in Pakistan’s capital city, Islamabad. The function was dropped because fanatics took steps to break Salam’s legs if he turned up at the college.
During the 1980s, Salam started experiencing a degenerative neurological problem. Inevitably he was restricted to a wheelchair. He resigned from his seat at Imperial College in 1994, age 68. Abdus Salam passed on calmly, age 70, at home in Oxford on November 21, 1996. He was covered four days after the fact in the Ahmadi city of Rabwah, Pakistan.
Cambridge and Important Prizes
Salam was granted a long-term grant to read for a Bachelor’s qualification at St. John’s College, Cambridge, UK. Following two years he graduated with five-star praises in Mathematics. After a year, he graduated with first-class praises in Quite a while. Salam remained at Cambridge for graduate investigations. In 1950, a year after beginning his Ph.D., he was granted the college’s Smith’s Prize for the most extraordinary pre-doctoral commitment to material science at the college. Salam finished his Ph.D. proposal in 1951: Developments in a quantum hypothesis of fields. This was a somewhat splendid work: notwithstanding making his name as a physicist, it brought about him winning a portion of the profoundly lofty Adams Prize for numerical sciences in 1956. To be qualified for the prize, up-and-comers must be under forty years old and living in the UK. Past victors included James Clerk Maxwell, J. J. Thomson, and Subrahmanyam Chandrasekhar.
Pakistan and the UK
In 1951, at age 25, Salam got back to the city of Lahore, in now autonomous Pakistan, to show Mathematics at Government College. He was loaded up with a trust that he could rouse another age of youngsters to become researchers and modernize society. The next year, he was designated Head of Mathematics at Punjab University.
In 1953, Lahore endured riots in which an extremely enormous number of Ahmadis were killed. Ahmadis believe themselves to be Muslim, however are viewed as blasphemers by numerous different Muslims. Salam, who was an Ahmadi, chose to leave Pakistan and re-visitation of Cambridge. Salam went through four years as a teacher at Cambridge until, in 1957, age 31, he has delegated Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College, London. In 1959, he was chosen as a Fellow of the Royal Society.
The Electroweak Force
The Initial Problem:
At a material science gathering in Seattle in 1956, Salam turned out to be energized tuning into Chen-Ning Yang portray equality infringement – Yang and his partner Tsung-Dao Lee would be granted the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. Yang depicted how equality, a property physicist accepted was constantly rationed – like energy, force, and electric charge – need not be moderated in powerless atomic associations, for example, beta rot. The suggestion was that Nature could differentiate among left and right. Why, Salam pondered, was left-right evenness abused in frail cooperation’s, however, preserved in electromagnetic communications?
He persuaded himself, accurately, that the appropriate response lay in a measure hypothesis – the first had been Maxwell’s detailing of electrodynamics.
Anticipating the W and Z Bosons:
Salam chipped away at the issue with his Ph.D. understudy Ronald Shaw and, in 196l-62, Steven Weinberg went through a year with Salam at Imperial College. The researchers created a hypothesis saying that while the electromagnetic power was communicated by massless photons, there must exist particles with mass associated with a bound together power – the electroweak power. They conjectured the presence of W and Z bosons. W and Z bosons, they stated, are the particles with mass that participate in beta rot of a nuclear core.
The net result of beta rot is that a neutron transforms into a beta molecule (a high energy electron), a proton, and an electron antineutrino. The W boson is a moderate molecule in beta rot. The neutron initial rots into a W boson. On account of beta rot, the W boson is adversely charged, composed W–. It stays nearby for a fantastically short measure of time: 3 × 10-25 seconds, before rotting into a proton, beta molecule, and antineutrino.
Z bosons convey no electric charge, yet convey energy. They are seen in high energy circumstances. The way that the power transporters of the electroweak power – the W and Z bosons – have mass while photons have no mass was a significant issue, because in a SU (2) measure hypothesis (molecule material science language for the check structure Salam and others were working inside) bosons must have no mass. Diminish Higgs tackled the issue of bosons with masses in 1964 with the Higgs component, foreseeing the Higgs boson. (Higgs was granted the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work.) 
W and Z Bosons are Discovered:
Z boson associations, called powerless impartial flows since Z bosons convey no charge, were seen at CERN in 1973. W bosons were seen in 1983.
Taken together, the SU (2) check hypothesis of the frail collaboration, in addition to the electromagnetic association, in addition to the Higgs system creates the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, concluded in 1968. The model effectively bound together with the electromagnetic and powerless powers into the electroweak power.
Salam’s most popular commitments to science include:
- Two-segment neutrino hypothesis and the forecast of the inescapable equality infringement in powerless cooperation
- check unification of frail and electromagnetic connections the bound together power is known as the “electroweak” power, named by Salam
- anticipated presence of frail nonpartisan flows and W particles and Z particles before their trial disclosure
- balance properties of rudimentary particles and solidarity evenness
- renormalization of meson speculations
- gravity hypothesis and its function in molecule material science including two tensor hypotheses of gravity and solid collaboration material science
- supersymmetry hypothesis including detailing of superspace and formalism of superfields
Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics “for their contributions to the theory of the unified weedy and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current” .
Ahmad Hasan Dani:
Professor Ahmad Hasan Dani, who has passed on matured 88, was Pakistan’s driving classicist and an expert on the south and focal Asian paleontology and history. Regardless of whether tending to worldwide meetings or controlling schoolchildren on social meanders aimlessly around Islamabad, Dani passed on energy for discovering that was irresistible.
In 1945 he had worked with the incomparable British paleontologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler on the vestiges at Moenjodaro, the 4,500year-old city settlement in Sindh region, southern Pakistan. Dani uncovered intriguing insights concerning the site, broadcasting it “the main arranged city on the planet” and exhibiting that its Indus Valley civilization was one of mankind’s extraordinary basic societies, close by Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China. He depicted an advanced people who got water system, exchanged with Arabia, and controlled from Afghanistan to Rajasthan. He additionally indicated how they rehearsed yoga and made statuettes of bangled moving young ladies and harshly confronted cleric lords that enchant watchers right up ’til today.
Dismissing scholastic super-specialization, Dani combined orders to reproduce the far-off past. He was conversant in 15 dialects, including French, Tamil, and Turkish. He composed 30 books. His last distribution, a History of Pakistan (2007), which finishes in the republic’s creation in 1947, embodies 50 years of examination.
An intellectual, Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani, was viewed as an expert on paleo history, culture, etymological, Buddhism, Central Asian prehistoric studies, and history. That made him a phenomenal researcher, at home and abroad.
Dani, an ethnic Kashmiri, was conceived on 20 June 1920 in Basna, British India. He graduated in 1944, with a MA degree, to turn into the primary Muslim alumni of Banaras Hindu University. In 1945, Dani functioned as a learner in paleo history under the direction of Mortimer Wheeler. As of now, he took an interest in unearthing at Taxila and Mohenjo-Daro. He was thusly posted at the Department of Archeology of British India at the Taj Mahal, Agra.
After the Partition of India, Dani relocated to East Pakistan. There, between 1947-49 he functioned as Assistant Superintendent of the Department of Archeology. As of now, he amended the Verandra Museum at Rajshahi. Afterward, in 1950, he was elevated to the situation of Superintendent-in-Charge of Archeology. For a time of twelve years (between 1950-62), Dani stayed Associate Professor of History at the University of Dhaka, while simultaneously functioning as guardian at Dhaka historical center. During this period, he completed an archeological exploration of the Muslim history of Bengal.
Dani moved to the University of Peshawar in 1962 as a Professor of Archeology and stayed there until 1971. During this time, he drove the resetting and remodel works for the Lahore and Peshawar Museums. In 1971, he moved to Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, and stayed in different situations until his retirement in 1980 when he was made Emeritus Professor.
He got an Honorary Doctorate from Tajikistan University, (Dushanbe) in 1993. During the very year, Dani set up the Islamabad Museum. Between 1992–96, he has delegated Advisor to the Ministry of Culture of Pakistan, on Archeology. Between 1994-98, he remained Chairman of the National Fund for Cultural Heritage in Islamabad. Since 1997, Dani has been the Honorary Director at the Taxila Institute of Asian Civilizations.
Information on Sanskrit:
With his insight into Sanskrit Ahmad Hasan Dani turned into the main Muslim understudy of Banaras Hindu University where he broke the 25-year-old record of accomplishing the best grade in MA (1944), turning into the primary Muslim gold medalist in the University.
In 1945, Ahmad Dani got preparing in the field of prehistoric studies from Sir Mortimer Wheeler in Taxila and Moenjodaro (4,500year-old city settlement in Sindh territory) who think of a delineated strategy for a removal for preparing the new variety of archeologists. Dani uncovered intriguing insights regarding the site, announcing it “the primary arranged city on the planet” and exhibiting that its Indus Valley civilization was one of mankind’s extraordinary central societies. He portrayed a modern people who got water system, exchanged with Arabia, and managed from Afghanistan to Rajasthan. He likewise indicated how they rehearsed yoga and made statuettes of bangled moving young ladies and harsh confronted cleric rulers that enchant watchers right up ’til today. Dani was later posted at the Department of Archeology of British India at the Taj Mahal in Agra.
The Muslim History of Bengal:
After the parcel of India, Dani relocated to Dhaka, previously East Pakistan. There he composed the Muslim history of Bengal, and improved historical centers, and investigated new roads of archeological exploration putting his ability and work to join individuals on the grounds of civilization.
College of Peshawar:
Dr. Dani moved to the University of Peshawar in 1962 and stayed there till 1971. He led various archeological investigations and unearthing on the Stone Age and Gandara civilizations in the Northern Areas.
In 1971, he moved to Quaid-I-Azam University in Islamabad where he set up the Faculty of Social Sciences and served its senior member until his retirement in 1980. In 1993, Dr. Dani set up the Islamabad historical center. Somewhere in the range of 1992 and 1996, he has designated a guide on antiquarianism to the service of culture. Somewhere in the range of 1994 and 1998, he filled in as administrator of the National Fund for Cultural Heritage in Islamabad. In 1997, he became a privileged chief at the Taxila Institute of Asian Civilization.
Prof Dani was granted privileged associations of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (1969), German Archeological Institute (1981), Ismeo, Rome (1986), and Royal Asiatic Society (1991). He got a privileged doctorate from Tajikistan University in Dushanbe in 1993.
From 1985, Dr. Dani was associated with research focusing on documentation of old stone carvings and engravings on stays from Neolithic age in the rocky district of Gilgit-Baltistan, alongside Harald Hauptmann of Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, University of Heidelberg.
In 1990-91, Dr. Dani drove UNESCO’s International groups for the Desert Route Expedition of Silk Road in China and the Steppe Route Expedition of the Silk Road in the previous Soviet Union. Dr. Dani was granted Pakistan’s Hilal-I-Imtiaz (2000) and Sitara-I-Imtiaz (1969), France’s Legion d’Honneur (1998), UNESCO’s Aristotle Silver Medal (1997), Germany’s Order of Merit (1996), and Italy’s Knight Commander (1994) .
Having written more than 30 books including the Historic City of Taxila, History of Northern Areas, Romance of the Khyber Pass, New Light on Central Asia, Central Asia Today, Human Records on Karakoram Highway, Dr. Dani’s last book, is the History of Pakistan (2008), which finishes in the republic’s creation in 1947, and epitomizes 50 years of examination. The best effect on Pakistan, he contended, was neither the Hindu south nor the Arab west yet focal Asia, in its Buddhist, Persian, and later Sufi appearances.
Ahmad Hasan Dani, ethnically a Kashmiri, was conceived in Basna, Raipur, India. He was conversant in 15 dialects including French, Turkish, and Tamil.
Famous Pakistani Scholars:
He was viewed as an expert in sociologies in Pakistan. A famous scholastic and exploration profession in differing fields of sociologies earned him shrubs and regard from his nation just as the world over. He is ostensibly one of the most granted researchers Pakistan has ever observed. His work in the territory of paleontology, history, and partnered subjects for South Asia locale and its human advancements helped restore antiquated history related to this land. His exploration was to some degree novel one might say that it had even-minded government assistance bearing instead of simply being of high scholastic worth.
More than 50 distributions of first-class quality, many years of administration in the scholarly community, and examination bodies followed by influential positions in these drove him to be viewed as the main expert in sociologies of the global gauge. Pakistan and creating nations haven’t seen a large number of his equals whose commitments have been perceived by numerous nations universally in various structures including knighthoods from France, Italy, and Germany. In Pakistan, he was granted with nation’s top distinctions including Pride of Performance, Sitara-I-Imtiaz, and Eizaz-e-Kamal.
After the Partition of India, Dani relocated to East Pakistan. There, in 1947–49 he filled in as Assistant Superintendent of the Department of Archeology. As of now, he redesigned the Verandra Museum at Rajshahi. In 1949, he wedded Safiya Sultana. Together, they had three children (Anis, Navaid, and Junaid) and a girl (Fauzia). In 1950, Dani was elevated to the situation of Superintendent-in-Charge of Archeology. In the very year, he became General Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka. Later on, in 1955, he took the situation of President of the National Committee for Museums in Pakistan. For a time of twelve years (1950–62), Dani stayed Associate Professor of History at the University of Dhaka while simultaneously filling in as guardian at the Dhaka Museum. During this period, he did an archeological examination of the Muslim history of Bengal.
University of Peshawar:
Dani moved to the University of Peshawar in 1962 as a Professor of Archeology and stayed there until 1971. During this time, he drove the resetting and redesign works for the Lahore and Peshawar Museums. He became Chairman of the Research Society at the University of Peshawar in 1970. In 1971, he moved to the University of Islamabad to become Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences. He left the post in 1975 to focus on research as a Professor of History. In the interim, the college was renamed Quaid-e-Azam University in 1976. He kept on working in different situations until his retirement in 1980 when he was made Emeritus Professor. During this period, he additionally filled in as President of the Archeological and Historical Association of Pakistan (1979) and Co-Director of the Pak-German Team for Ethnology Research in Northern Areas of Pakistan (1980) .
Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi:
He was born on 3rd November 1903 in Uttar Pradesh, British India. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi (famously known as I.H. Qureshi), SP, HI, was a Pakistani history master, instructed individual, author, and a teacher a political history at the Karachi University. He is viewed as (thought of as) the establishing individual from Muqtadra Qaumi Zaban and filled in as the primary training priest of Pakistan. He is likewise credited for altering a four-volume arrangement on the history of Pakistan.
Prof Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi was one such individual. He is one of the large names in historiography and he impacted the world forever, as well. His true to life sketch peruses like a plot straight out of a customary story-book where a kid from an unassuming community who once couldn’t bear the cost of fair training later ventures to the far corners of the planet and turns into a clergyman and a renowned man. Dr. Qureshi composed history impacted the world forever and lived history.
Dr. Sahib’s family had endured much on account of the British. His granddad’s sibling was hanged for partaking in the 1857’s battle of freedom and his granddad was flame-broiled about his speculated collaboration with his sibling. Dr. Sahib loathed the colonialists and, along these lines, joined the Non-Co-activity Movement and the Khilafat Movement when they were dispatched. During the development, he set up Khilafat advisory groups in the rustic zones and increased significant experience that molded his character and broke his confidence in the idea of Hindu-Muslim solidarity.
Born and education:
Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi was born in a respectable group of Patiala, District Etah, a town in Uttar Pradesh, British India. He did registration in 1916 and joined MAO College Aligarh. Right now, he took a dynamic part in Khilafat’s development. He did graduation and M.A. in History from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi with unique excellence. In 1927, he got an M.A. in Persian.
He served as Lecturer in History at St. Stephen’s College from 1928 to 1944. Between 1937–40, he learned at Cambridge University for a Ph.D. degree. The subject of his proposal was the Administration of the Sultanate of Delhi. During this period, he likewise quickly joined the Pakistan National Movement established by Chaudhary Rahmat Ali. After getting back from England, he joined Delhi University where he was named Professor of History, and accordingly, the Dean of the Faculty of Arts. He additionally filled in as Acting Vice-Chancellor of the Delhi University. In 1947, during the Partition riots, when the Muslim understudies of the St Stephen’s College must be cleared to the Purana Qila, Dr. Qureshi’s library was torched by the hordes.
The profession in Pakistan:
After experiencing riots, he moved to Pakistan in 1948. There, he proceeded with his scholastic and political career. He filled in as an individual from the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. In 1949, he was chosen as Professor of History at the University of the Punjab, Lahore. He likewise joined the Government of Pakistan as Minister of Refugee and later as Minister of Education.
Later on, he joined Columbia University, New York where he composed his popular book, the Muslim Community of South Asia, as an account of the hardships of the Muslims in South Asia. On his return, he assumed a vital part in the improvement of the University of Karachi.
Investigating and Writing:
The prominent part of his character is that during his whole political profession he never quit his insightful interests and continued investigating and composing. Joining Columbia University as a meeting teacher in 1955 gave him a chance to stay occupied with a variety of scholarly and insightful exercises. Here he remained till 1960 and created his particular work ‘The Muslim people group of the Indo-Pakistan sub-landmass’, an achievement in the historiography of the sub-mainland. In 1960, he was welcome to head the then recently settled ‘Focal establishment of Islamic examination'.
He acknowledged the offer yet in 1961 was made Karachi University’s Vice-Chancellor. It was a test as the early varsity was wrestling with a ton of issues. Dr. Sahib’s vision, experience, and constant work changed it into one of the nation’s best colleges. He got new squares of structures built, new offices, and other personnel opened and sent numerous college educators to another country for additional examination and preparation. He got the varsity’s focal library built that today houses more than 200,000 volumes. 
Two Important Books:
During his residency as VC, he wrote two significant books, ‘The battle for Pakistan’ and ‘The organization of Mughal realm’. After his retirement as VC in 1971, Dr. Sahib composed three important books, to be specific ‘Training in Pakistan’, ‘ Akber the organizer of Mughal domain’ and ‘Ulema in legislative issues'.
The Struggle for Pakistan:
At the point when the Muslims requested a different sovereign state grasping the Muslim larger part regions in the subcontinent, numerous impartial eyewitnesses were shocked. Indeed, even today Pakistani essayists think that it’s important to clarify the raison d’etre of their country. In the book, Qureshi is attempting to fill holes, clear disarray, and give authentic approval to the idea of the Two-country hypothesis and the difficulties looked by Muslims in their battle for Pakistan. Qureshi’s decisions on Pakistan’s development are: “Pakistan appeared as the consequence of the fruitful battle of the Muslims of the Sub-landmass against two dominions, British, and Hindu” and that “the Pakistanis didn’t get Pakistan on a silver platter. 
Dr. Sahib held numerous different posts as well, for example, president of, Pakistan Historical Society, and Member of, National Commission for Archives and Historical Records. He joined in and tended to countless public and global workshops. His innumerable papers on Pakistan’s set of experiences and its way of life fill in as a reference for researchers. He did at present some more insightful work during the last period of his life when in 1979 he was approached to head the then recently settled ‘Muqtadira Qaumi Zaban’, or the National Language Authority’. Here he arranged and made the main strides towards making Urdu a language that could supplant English as a mechanism of guidance and as a legitimate language of the nation, a reason for which he had been battling for a mind-blowing duration. Even though Urdu has been set up to take on the position of the nation’s authentic language, through the endeavors of Muqtadira and other comparative foundations of the nation, a need for political will by progressive governments has been preventing its encouraging.
- Organization of the Sultanate of Dehli (1942)
- Ulema in Politics
- Akbar, the Architect of the Mughal Empire
- Training in Pakistan
- The Administration of the Mughal Empire
- Battle for Pakistan
- The Muslim people group of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, 610-1947: a concise recorded investigation. Gravenhage, Mouton. 1962
- A Short History of Pakistan (General Editor)
- The Religion of Peace (1930)
- But Tarash
- Band Lifafa
- Katt Putlian
- Gunha ki Diwar
- Mithai ki Tokri
- Moalim Aswad
- Mullah Aala
- Nafrat ka Beej
- Neem Shab
List of Books:
- The religion of harmony 1930
- The Administration of the Sultanate of Delhi 1942
- The Muslim people group of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, 610-1947 – 1962
- The Struggle for Pakistan 1965
- Organization of the Moghul Empire1966
- A Short History of Pakistan 1967
- Ulema in P0olitics 1972
- Organization of the Mughal Empire 1974
Dr. Qureshi passed on 22nd January 1981, in Islamabad and was covered in Karachi’s Gulshan-I-Iqbal graveyard. Though he has now become history, Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi will live on as an antiquarian and an exploration researcher.
1. famousscientists. 10th October 2020; Available from: https://www.famousscientists.org/mohammad-abdus-salam/
2. pakpedia. 10th October 2020; Available from: https://www.pakpedia.pk/ahmad-hasan-dani/
3. pakpedia. 10th October 2020; Available from: https://www.pakpedia.pk/ishtiaq-hussain-qureshi/